Tuesday, December 30, 2008

Kitten Food for Kittens

Your kitten will probably have been already weaned when he or she first arrives at your house, and, hopefully, will be eating a high-quality food designed for kittens. If so, it will probably be best to continue him on the food he is accustomed to, to avoid the inevitable tummy upsets of a quick food change. If not - if your kitten has been eating a lesser-quality (grocery store) food, you'll need to convert him over to a more appropriate kitten food gradually.

Start by adding a small amount of premium kitten food to his existing food, then gradually increase the amount each day. You will likely find that once your kitten tastes the higher quality food, he will nose through the kibble to find those morsels. At that point, you can make the switch complete.

Dry Food Versus Canned

We'll start with dry food first, simply because of its convenience, and because many cat "parents" continue to feed dry food. However, for a longer, fuller life, you should try to convert your kitten over to canned food as quickly as possible, with dry food given only as "snacks" or "treats." More information on dry vs canned foods can be found in my article, Canned Food - the Real Staple for Cats.

Unlike adult cats, kittens will eat only as much food as they need for adequate nutrition, so free-feeding of dry kitten foods will work, if that is what you need for your own household.

Here are my Top Picks of Premium Dry Kitten Foods.

What About Adult Cat Food?

Kittens are not just miniature cats. Kittens' growth and development need extra protein, fat, vitamins, and minerals to get the right start in life. The extra protein is needed for growth and development of strong muscles and supporting tissue; fat is essential for fatty acids, as a carrier for fat-soluble vitamins, and for the additional calories for energy, according to this excellent article from PetEducation.com. Minerals, of course, are needed for the development of strong teeth and bones.

While adult cat food will not "hurt" your kitten in the short term, it is selling him short on the extra nutrients he needs for active growth, which takes place throughout the first year of his life. Save the adult cat food for your big guys, and give your kitten what he needs: kitten food, for his first year.

source : www.cat.about.com
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Care of a Pregnant Cat

If your cat was in heat and had access to a tom (unneutered male) cat, the likelihood that she is pregnant is very strong. A pregnant queen will show both physical and personality changes which will become more evident around three weeks after breeding. The gestation period for cats runs from 60 to 67 days. I like to use 63 days as an average, because it is easier to equate with human gestation (nine weeks vs nine months).

Physical Changes in a Pregnant Cat

*Heat Cycles Cease
This will be the first sign you may notice. If your female cat has been suffering heat cycles every 10 days to two weeks, and suddenly stops, it is very likely she is pregnant.

* Nipples Swell and Become Rosier in Color
Breeders call this "pinking," and it may be the first physical sign you will see.

*Increased Appetite
Your pregnant cat will show an increased interest in food. After all, she is not only eating for herself, but for several foetuses.

*Possible Vomiting
Pregnant queens may be subject to a few bouts of "morning sickness," much as human mothers-to-be. This in itself is not cause for alarm, but if it continues or is frequent, veterinarian intervention is needed.

* Abdominal Enlargement
Sometime around the fifth week of pregnancy, your pregnant cat's abdomen will start to swell noticeably, and it will continue to enlarge until time for birthing.

Personality Changes in a Pregnant Cat

*Increased Affection
Your cat may become more affectionate than normal and frequently seek out your attention. By all means, give it to her!

* "Nesting" Activities
This is not an early sign of pregnancy, but as the time for partruition (birth) approaches, your pregnant cat may seek out quiet, private places for birth to take place.

Clinical Diagnosis of Pregnancy in Cats

If your queen has had regular veterinary care, and the previous signs of pregnancy are evident, it may not be necessary to have an "official" diagnosis by a veterinarian, unless you have reason to fear something is wrong. However (and this is a big consideration), if your intent is to spay her, it is probably better that your veterinarian knows exactly what to expect.

* Palpation
Your veterinarian may be able to feel fetuses by palpating (feel by gently pressing) your queen's abdomen, usually around the 17th-20th day of pregnancy.

This diagnostic tool may detect fetuses as early as the second week of pregnancy, and heartbeats may be detected sometime after the third week.

If your resident (or rescued) cat is indeed confirmed pregnant, some serious decision-making time is at hand. See the next article in this series for help with that decision.

Read more "Care of a Pregnant Cat..."

No reservations (2007)

Master chef Kate Armstrong (Catherine Zeta-Jones) lives her life like she runs her kitchen at a trendy Manhattan eatery-with a no-nonsense intensity that both captivates and intimidates everyone around her.

Kate,s perfectionist nature is put to the test when she "inherits" her nine-year-old niece Zoe (Abigail Breslin), while contending with a brash new sous-chef who joins her staff. High-spirited and freewheeling, Nick Palmer (Aaron Eckhart) couldn,t be more different from Kate, yet the chemistry between them is undeniable. Rivalry becomes romance, but Kate will have to learn to express herself beyond the realm of her kitchen if she wants to connect with Zoe and find true happiness with Nick.
Read more "No reservations (2007)..."

Tuesday, December 23, 2008

Seven reasons to get a new Job

If you really want to leave your existing job but you never dare to do it, Here is seven reasons why you should leave and get new job.

1. Long live Stress
If every morning you never feel spirit when you go to the office and your body suddenly get ill, it means that you have attacked by high stress. It caused by office surrounding that no longer confortable, your overload task etc. Your high stres can effecting your both mentality and phisically. So dont delay anymore, maybe it is the time to find another job.

2. You Feel your Career is Stuck
if you feel that your career at the office is stuck, move to new place is a good solution and must be consider. With your experients, many companies need you and agree to place you in a better potition.

in your exixting office, maybe it's very difficult to get salary raised because of one or more reasons. But in other places, you got your higher point. at interview you can negotiate your desired salary

4. Better Facilities
If you always complaint about your office's facilities, you can get it in another office. From many offers come to you, off course you will choose a company that will give you the best facilities, don't you?

5. Need some time.
in your existing office, you difficult to spend your leasure time, because too busy doing your exercise. By applying a new job, you can choose a job that it will not much spend your time. Such as, if you always overtime, now it's time for you to choose a job that doesn't require overtime.

6. Office to far away from home
Your Office is to far away from home and you often stuck at the way to the office. Tired is for sure. One of the solution is find another job which nearer and strategic with our home

7. Building reputation
If you want to work at more bonafite company, you should leave your company now. Working at a bonafite company can raise your point.
Read more "Seven reasons to get a new Job..."

Be a Team Player

You will get many advantages having nice partner at your work. One of the andvantages is you can get confortable work relationship. With team working, it will give better result for our task. So what you should do to form strong team?

1. You can borrow stationery such as ballpoint and paperclip to your partner next your desk, rather than she/ he has to take it at secretariat.

2. Dont make a gossip related your partner with other friend at your office.
3. You can share your knowledge with partner
4. Support his ideas at meeting.
5. Give him a little present such as candies or chocolate, as impression of interest at great day, birthday or other special events.
6. Help to do his task so that your partner can go home early and prepare for his first date.
7. (once) you can cover his fault, so that he will not get angried by boss.
8. Help your partner finish the problem occured by that fault.
9. Help him to remind about meeting schedule and deadline
10. You can borrow your "ear" if your partner want to tell all of his difficulty that he face.
11. Dont bother your partner with your own task or your personal problem, when he was so busy.

and many ways you can take to increase your team player.

Read more "Be a Team Player..."

Monday, December 22, 2008

The Easy Way to Drop 5 Pounds in One Week!

Do you have a big event coming up? Maybe you're a bride to be and you want to suit your body with your wedding gown, so you look very pretty at that day, or perhaps you're heading off to a vacation at the beach. You want your body to look it's very best, but you're carrying around a few extra pounds. Don't despair -- there are ways to shed that unwanted weight quickly, easily and safely. You should Try these :

Leek Soup Technique

One technique that's often used by French women is leek soup. Simply simmer a large pot of leeks in water until they're soft. Eat this for three days. You can also have vegetables, fruits, and water or herbal tea. After three days of eating primarily leek soup, then you can start adding healthy, low calorie fare to your meals like lean protein such as fish or skinless chicken. You'll find that after a week of eating like this, you're at least five pounds lighter!
Juice Diets

Many people wanting to lose weight quickly try fasts or juice diets. If you'd like to do this for yourself, it's important to do it right. A juice diet can help your body detox and shed excess weight quickly, but it should not be followed for longer than a few days. Choose juices that don't contain sugar, and that feature a blend of healthy fruits and vegetables. For three days, drink nothing but water and your juices. After three days, introduce light, low-calorie foods in small portions back to your diet.

While you're dieting, it's crucial to jumpstart your metabolism with cardiovascular exercise. Be sure to get at least 30 minutes of cardio at least three times a week. This will ensure that you're burning calories and staying strong.
Tips to Increase Your Weightloss Success

Regardless of what kind of diet you choose, there are some things that can help increase your success. Along with regular exercise, be sure to drink plenty of healthy liquids like water and herbal tea. Try adding lemon to your water for an added Vitamin C boost.

Be sure you stay away from sugar, processed foods, red meat, dairy, and empty carbs like white breads. Your regular diet should consist of primarily vegetables and fruits. For carbs, eat only whole grain, nuts and seeds. If you must eat meat, stick to lowfat choices like fish, chicken, or lean red meat in small doses. Dairy is important for healthy bones, but during your diet you should avoid it. If you must have dairy products, stick to low or no fat.

By finding a diet plan that's right for you and choosing wisely when it comes to food, you can drop five pounds in as little as a week and be ready to fit into that little bikini or gorgeous gown!
Still want to continue your diet with this way? why not? but you also have to consider your own health, maybe you already got a maag before, you should consult with your nutritist before you take diet.
Read more "The Easy Way to Drop 5 Pounds in One Week!..."

A List of Negative Calorie Foods

Have a plan to reduce your weight? still want to have a healthy diet? Check this kind of Negative Calorie food to help you reducing your weight.




Brussel sprouts
Buffalo fish


Celery Chicory
Celery Root
Chinese Cabbage






Frog legs

Garden Cress
Green Beans
Green Cabbage


Honeydew Melon




Lamb's Lettuce


Mustard greens





Parley leaves




Red cabbage


Sea bass
String beans







Read more "A List of Negative Calorie Foods..."

Superfoods to Help you Ease Your Monthly Menstruation

Every month it's the same thing. You're bloated, tired, cranky, fighting cravings, and trying to get rid of headaches. You wish you could be like your friend or your sister, who seems to just breeze right through her cycle with little or no problem. Take a look at your diet and see if these superfoods are a part of it. If they're not, they can easily become a part of a well-balanced healthy diet that might just make your cycles to come simple to manage.

Bananas have long been well known as nature's 'perfect food.' They're loaded with potassium, zinc, iron, folic acid, calcium, B6 and soluble fiber. They're good for digestion, menstrual difficulties and essential for athletes because they can quickly replace what your body loses during your cycle or when you're exercising frequently. And, if you suffer from diarrhea during your monthly cycle, they are the idea treatment when eaten in conjunction with apples, rice and dry toast - more commonly known as the BRAT treatment.

Bee pollen has been popularized by famous athletes who take it regularly for strength and endurance. It has been used successfully to treat a variety of ailments including allergies, asthma, menstrual irregularities, constipation, diarrhea, anemia, low energy, cancer, rheumatism, arthritis and toxic conditions. It can, however, provoke allergic reactions in those who are taking it for the first time, so it's important to start with small amounts and slowly build up to a teaspoon or so per day. Bee pollen can be taken in powder, capsule or tablet form-or in raw unprocessed honey mixed with cereal or spread on toast.

Make sure you're getting plenty of iron-rich foods in your diet. Leafy green vegetables, beans, shellfish, red meat, poultry, soy foods are great choices. Try teaming these with citrus foods containing vitamin C, which will promote iron absorption. Steer clear of alcohol, caffeinated beverages, or salty foods, and as always, make sure you choose unsaturated fats. These will only exacerbate that bloated feeling you suffer through each month.

Read more "Superfoods to Help you Ease Your Monthly Menstruation..."

Macrobiotic Diet Helps Balance Your Diet and Your Life

Macrobiotics devotees believe that food, and food quality, affects our lives more than is commonly thought. It is thought to affect our health, well being and happiness. They focus on moving away from processed foods, and moving toward more natural and more traditional methods of food preparation. They claim it is better to choose food that is less processed, more natural, use more traditional methods of food preparation for themselves and their family

Macrobiotics emphasize locally-grown, organically-grown whole grain cereals, legumes, vegetables, fruit, seaweed and fermented soy products, combined into meals according to the principle of balance between yin and yang properties, rather than scientific dietary guidelines. Macrobiotic diets follow the idea of Yin and Yang. Cereals, fruit, beans, nuts and vegetables, and rice make up the main part of the diet and are considered neutral and are naturally balanced in terms of Yin and Yang. Foods which are either extremely Yin in nature or extremely Yang in nature are eaten very rarely if at all. Very Yin products include coffee, tropical fruit, sugar, soft dairy products, vegetables, alcohol and honey. Very Yang products include poultry, meat, firm dairy products like hard cheeses, and eggs.

The macrobiotic diet is high in natural, unprocessed foods, complex carbohydrates, and vegetables. It is low in saturated fats, whilst providing the essential fats. Food should be organically grown and eaten fresh. The Macrobiotic lifestyle also governs how food should be prepared. No microwave should be used - rice must be cooked in a pressure cooker. Food should be eaten and chewed slowly, in a relaxed manner.

Low-fat high-fiber diets are also believed to play a role in preventing some types of cancer. And the macrobiotic emphasis on fresh, non-processed foods may be beneficial to those dealing with certain food allergies and chemical sensitivities. Followers assert that the balance and harmony of the macrobiotic diet and lifestyle create the best possible conditions for health. They claim that the diet yields many positive health effects, including a general sense of well-being, and some studies actually show that people on the diet have a decreased risk of heart disease and some forms of cancer.

Read more "Macrobiotic Diet Helps Balance Your Diet and Your Life..."

Tuesday, December 16, 2008

Ratatoille (2007)

A rat named Remy dreams of becoming a great French chef despite his family's wishes and the obvious problem of being a rat in a decidedly rodent-phobic profession. When fate places Remy in the sewers of Paris, he finds himself ideally situated beneath a restaurant made famous by his culinary hero, Auguste Gusteau.

Despite the apparent dangers of being an unlikely - and certainly unwanted - visitor in the kitchen of a fine French restaurant, Remy's passion for cooking soon sets into motion a hilarious and exciting rat race that turns the culinary world of Paris upside down. Remy's adventure is not just that, he also have to face the food critical to make its restaaurant famous.Food critic named Anton Ego, nicknamed "The Grim Eater". The questions remain: Will Remy achieve his goal? Will he be able to please everyone in his locality?
Read more "Ratatoille (2007)..."

Kungfu Panda (2008)

It's the story about a lazy, irreverent slacker panda, named Po, who is the biggest fan of Kung Fu around...which doesn't exactly come in handy while working every day in his family's noodle shop. Unexpectedly chosen to fulfill an ancient prophecy, Po's dreams become reality when he joins the world of Kung Fu and studies alongside his idols, the legendary Furious Five -- Tigress, Crane, Mantis, Viper and Monkey --

under the leadership of their guru, Master Shifu. But before they know it, the vengeful and treacherous snow leopard Tai Lung is headed their way, and it's up to Po to defend everyone from the oncoming threat. Can he turn his dreams of becoming a Kung Fu master into reality? Po puts his heart - and his girth - into the task, and the unlikely hero ultimately finds that his greatest weaknesses turn out to be his greatest strengths.
Read more "Kungfu Panda (2008)..."

Coyote Ugly (2000)

Sexy, romantic comedy about a girl in her early 20s named Violet Sanford (Piper Perabo) going to NYC to pursue a dream of becoming a songwriter.All her efforts to get a demo tape to a producer are useless, additionally her apartment is broken in to, leaving her with nothing. But a coincidence leads her to Coyote Ugly, the city's newest hot spot where the employees are a team of sexy, resourceful women that provoke the clientele and press with their mischief.She finds her way to the bar and is hired by the bar's owner Lil (Maria Bello) due to her sudden display of headstrong behavior which the owner admires.

After starting her job, she quickly discovers that in order to keep her job she must learn the ropes of singing, dancing, and performing wild acts before a rowdy crowd. On one night she tries to get herself a good word through a bartender who jokingly diverts her to Kevin making her believe that he is the bar owner thus making a fool out of her which eventually brings them close together. Kevin is Violet's new friend and then become her boyfriend. They end up doing odd jobs together such as packing fish thus splitting the proceeds. Romantic interest Kevin O'Donnell (Adam Garcia) tries to help her in overcoming her shyness on the stage. She ends up landing a deal at a famous record label after a successful open mike night at the Bowery Ballroom.
Read more "Coyote Ugly (2000)..."

Honey (2003)

Honey Daniels (Jessica Alba) is a 22-year-old, sexy, tough-minded, part-black, part-Latina hip-hop dancer in New York's East Harlem who dreams of making it big as a music video choreographer. She teaches hip-hop dancing at a local youth center and encourages the local kids to attend to keep them off the streets and out of trouble. has been waiting all her life to show the world her dance moves, and now everything she ever wanted is just a step away.

For years, Honey's spirit and ambition have given her--as dancer and aspiring choreographer--the guts to move ahead, even when those who love her most have doubts about her possible success in such a tough field. At night, watching the clock until her bartending shift ends, Honey comes alive on the dance club floor, where her training collides with her passion and her smooth moves get her noticed. And then, her one-in-a-million break comes in the form of a video director, who sees Honey in the club and offers her a chance at a spot as a back-up dancer. From there, her true ability shines through, and she begins to finally live her dream--choreographing for some of the hottest acts in hip-hop and R&B, and for Honey, it feels too good to be true. Almost as quickly as it arrives, the dream starts to dissolve. Back in the work-a-day world, Honey returns to what she knows best--the urban music she adores--and rediscovers her love of dancing though the exuberant energy of a group of neighborhood kids.
Read more "Honey (2003)..."

Monday, December 15, 2008

Smart and Productive Job

There are four steps you can be more productive at the office. To do it, it needed commitment. However, if you do it continusly, it will be easier.
1. Work earlier, work harder, and stay longer. Two hours extra every day will bring you to be 10 percent of the best at your field for five years.

2. one of the way to develop your productivity is optimize a job that you think it is easy, meanwhile the others have to work harder than you.

3. To do hard job, do it with the team.

4. Learn to give exact task to exact person and with exact methode.
Read more "Smart and Productive Job..."

Sunday, December 14, 2008

The Mall, Symbol of Powerful of USA

The Mall is not one of high and huge building with many stores inside it. The mall is a storical complex building that explain about USA goverment.
two famous buiding in Washington DC, Capitol hill and white house, is not to far from it. That two building almost face to face, and there are several museum also high monument, Washington Monument, between them.
Capitol hill is one of attractive building in Washington DC. its huge dome with statue of woman, called statue of freedom, very interesting to visit. This building is signed with huge dome above a rotunda with two wings, each wing is occupied by congress, north wing is senat and south wing is DPR office. There is a gallery where visitor can see senat and DPR, above it.

Capitol Hill's dome can be seen when we already get in Pennsylvania avenue, which is a commercial street full of stores, restaurants, and bars. from this street, its also starting point to get tourist bus. This bus will take visitor enjoy the beauty og the Mall, from pennsylvania avenue to Capitol Hill, next Washington Monument and White House.
Capitol Hill building can be visited every monday to saturday. But for now, capitol hill building is closed for general because its being renovated as preparation for inaguration of choosen president, Barrack Obama at January 20, 2009.
From Capitol Hill building, we can continue our trip to enjoy several museum which separate in front of that building. Such are Botanic gardens, American Indian Museum, Air and Space Museum and National Gallery of Art.
If we take a walk from in front of Capitol Hill building, there is a huge field which is used to take a rest, and playing football by nearby people, then we will see Washington Monument which stand with heigth 169.1 meters. Washington Monument is a building with second hightest rock material in the world and it is a highest building in Washington DC. Made by Marbel stone, granitte and sand stone, this monument is constructed to remember first president of USA, George Washington. This monument is located in west The Mall.
If we continue our trip to north side, there is a famous office in the world, White house. Constructed at October 13, 1792, White house is both of home and office of president of USA.
White house compleks contain of executive's house or house of president's family, West wing is a location of Oval Office (president office), Cabinet room adn Roosevelt room, East wing is a location of first woman's office and also for white house social secretaty and old Executive office Building, which is a presiden and vice president's office.
White house have six floor, which contain of basement, first floor, second floor and third floor and two more floor in basement. This building is owned by National Park Service and part of President's park.
White house actually can be visited by public, but since September 11, 2001 attack, visiting to White house is prohibitted. 2 years again, visiting is permitted, but so limited for a group that have made a agreement through congress and giving identity.
Tour is openned every tuesday to saturday at 07.30 until 12.30. Visitors free to go around white house and free of charge. However,toward to inaguration of Barrack Obama at January 20, 2009, the building is being renovated and closed for public.
Read more "The Mall, Symbol of Powerful of USA..."

Ayam Bumbu Rujak

Mild chicken dish in Coconut milk

2 red Chilli peppers
3 cloves Garlic
10 Kemirie nuts
3 Tbl Oil
1 strand Lemon grass
2 Lime leaves
2 Curry leaves
1 Kg. Chicken drumsticks
200 cl Coconut milk

Remove seeds from the peppers. Make the peppers, garlic and nuts into a smooth
paste using a pestle and mortar or food processor.
Heat oil in wok and fry the paste dry in about 10 min. Add bruised lemon grass and lime & curry leaves and fry for a further minute.
Transfer to a sauce pan, add chicken and coconutmilk and boil covered for about 30 min. Remove lid and boil for a further 15 min. until chicken is done and sauce thickens. Add salt to taste.
Serve hot.
Read more "Ayam Bumbu Rujak..."

Nasi goreng, Indonesian food

Nasi Goreng, Indonesian fried rice. This dish can be enjoyed by itself or as the basis of a larger meal, for example with a rijsttafel. It is very easy to make and won't take more than 20 minutes to prepare.

350 gr. Long Grain Rice
2 Tbs. Vegetable Oil
3 Eggs
1 Onion
2 Green Chillis, Sambal Ulek or Sambal Badjak.
1 Garlic Clove
1 Leek
1 teaspoon Ground Coriander
1 teaspoon Ground Cumin
250 gr. Chicken meat
250 gr. Shelled Prawns
3 Tbs. Kecap Manis

This dish is best made from cold leftover rice, but you can cook a fresh batch and leave it to cool for at least 4 hours.
Beat the eggs and make into a omelette, slice into strips and set aside.
Heat the oil in a wok or large frying pan. Add the chopped onion, leek, garlic and chillis. Fry until the onion is soft. Add the Coriander and Cumin. Slice Chicken into strips and add with the prawns to the onion mixture and cook, stirring occasionally until they are well mixed. Add the rice, soya sauce and omelet strips and cook for a further 5 minutes.Decorate with some of the leftover leek and serve hot. Enjoy.
Read more "Nasi goreng, Indonesian food..."

Thursday, December 11, 2008

Bogmalo Beach, South Goa

The Bogmalo Beach, a small and sandy stretch, is surrounded by three hills, lush with greenery. Unlike other beaches in Goa, this attractive beach is clean and less crowded. The Bogmalo Beach Resort is huge and dominates the beach.

How to get there
The beach is 4km from Dabolim Airport, and 10km southeast of Vasco, rather close to the airport. The crowded bus services between Bogmalo and Vasco da Gama are an option, if you don't mind crowds. Taxis are also available.

What to experience
If you are through with your share of sun and sand, you can venture out to enjoy the surroundings. You can go for fishing, trekking or indulge in water sports. You can also pamper and recharge yourself at the nearby Ayurvedic Centre.

Sao Jacinto Island is a beautiful, small island with old houses and a lovely chapel. It is in the Mormugao Bay, 5km from Bogmalo, off the Panaji-Vasco Highway.

Remains of a wrecked ship lie off Grande Island, which is the main site for diving.

Issorcim is a small beach less than 2km from Bogmalo beach. For anglers, it's an ideal place, being almost deserted, except for a few villagers. To reach here, you have to take a left turn from the road which forks 1.5km before you reach Bogmalo.

Healing touch: Just across the Bogmalo is an Ayurvedic Centre, Sree Sankara Ayurvedic Centre. It is a worth visit.

Adventure Sports
You can indulge in windsurfing, diving and jet skiing. This place is the venue for two Enterprise class sailing championships significantly; Bogmalo beach is one of the few places in the country where you can learn scuba diving from a PADI-approved diving school. Trekking from Bogmalo to Hollant is a good option as one gets a memorable view of the Mormugao coast.

Safety information
Bogmalo Beach is safe for swimming. But you should not swim further than waist-deep water except where there are lifeguards.

Eating out
There are a few beach shacks, which have seafood and Continental dishes on their menu. More expensive options are also available.

There are a few decent options to stay in Bogmalo but most of them have been given over to charter companies to host their clients.

Why choose to go to Goa Bogmalo beach?
Goa Bogmalo beach sports a mixture of serenity and commercialism, splashed with simple beauty where one can happily lose oneself. Initially Bogmalo beach in Goa was a fishing village until tourists started pouring in and tourism stated catching up in this small Indian state of Goa. Despite modern eating joints, hi-tech shops selling handicrafts surrounding it, the village at Bogmalo still manages to stay alive. Bogmalo beach in Goa is clean and not very crowded like Anjuna beach or other beaches in Goa and while at Goa Bogmalo beach, you can definitely go in for a swim as the water is quite safe for swimming. After the swim, you can try out those numerous eating joints which offer delicious Goan cuisine.

Why Goa Bogmalo beach is so special?
Bogmalo beach in Goa is beautiful in itself and many may disagree but it has been made special by the Oberois who manage a property here built by Trade Wings. This building is right on the sea. As the waves lash the parapets of the open-air restaurant, the drone of the restless Arabian Sea lulls to sleep even the most insomniac. This is one attraction which all the tourists eagerly look forward to submit to, though some feel the Oberois have stolen the natural beauty of the beach. Beyond the building are mysterious little islands, shipwrecks in the silt and, around the hotel, plenty of pleasant eateries-each one of them claiming to be Osibisa's favorite. This pardonable selling trick began about 10 years ago when the Oberoi hosted the group.
Read more "Bogmalo Beach, South Goa..."

Ashwem Beach, Small beach in North Goa

Ashwem Beach
Down to the south from Arambol beach is the stretch of three beaches in Pernem taluka. Immediately down, south to Arambol is Ashwem. Unlike other beaches, this beach is quiet and an ideal place to relax. The wind-touch, white sandy stretch adds to the beach`s charm.

How to get there
About 20km from Panaji, the hourly bus service to Tiracol can be used to reach the beach.

What to experience
The beautiful beach, without the bane of commercialization, is a haven for tourists. Brisk walk, long swims and lazing around are very much in order.

Safety information
Though considered a fairly safe place to swim, the creek separating it form Mandrem should be avoided.

Eating Out
There are a few restaurants that serve a variety of cuisines.

Night Out
It's a small beach and there is not much to do for the nightbirds.

Apart from hotels, tree houses made of bamboo and mat huts on stilts can be good option. Incidentally, Ashwem was the first beach to have bamboo beach hut in 1996.
Read more "Ashwem Beach, Small beach in North Goa..."

Keri Beach, North Goa

Keri beach, North of Arambol is a completely unspoiled and raely visited stretch of sand backed by by Casuarina trees all the way down to Arambol Highland.

A tiny hamlet of Paliem village lies on the plateau about 5kms north of Arambol just before the road drops down to the dense wooden slopes to Keri and the Tiracol Ferry is also worth a visit.
Those who yearn for peace and want to de-stress, should head to Keri Beach, the perfect place to be in. It is one of the least frequented beaches on the northernmost extreme of Goa's coast.

How to get there
Keri is in Pernem taluka, 28km from Panaji, You can take a bus from Panaji to reach the beach.

What to experience
Stroll down the beach, with the cool air on your face, or just bask in the sun and enjoy feni. You can visit Tiracol Fort, but you have to take ferry to reach the fort. From the fort, you can enjoy the view of the beautiful Keri and Arambol beaches.

Adventure sports
Not most adventure sports happening here, expecting long walks during picnics.

Safety information
At low tide, you can enjoy long walks on the beach, but when the tide falls, it's better to avoid the Tiracol River.

Eating out
There are some eating joints here where you can get great seafood.

Only a few shacks and guest houses are available here.

List of Luxury & Budget Hotels/Resorts near Keri Beach Goa, available at cheap prices:

Tiracol Heritage
Tiracol Fort Heritage Hotel is a heritage hotel run in the Tiracol Fort, which dates back to the 16th century. The hotel stands sentinel at the mouth of river Tiracol, situated in the northern most corner of Goa. The hotel is an hour and forty minutes from the airport.
Rating : Heritage

Location : Keri Beach

Address :
Tiracol, Pernem
Goa-403524 India

Accessibility :
Dabolim Airport : 65 KM, Thivim : 32 KM, Panaji : 50 KM

Locational Advantage : Hotel Tiracol Fort Heritage Hotel is located overlooking the Keri Beach.

Description :
Tiracol Fort Heritage Hotel is a heritage hotel run in the Tiracol Fort, which dates back to the 16th century. The hotel stands sentinel at the mouth of river Tiracol, situated in the northern most corner of Goa. The hotel is an hour and forty minutes from the airport. Hotel Tiracol Fort Heritage combines both modern day comforts with the majestic grandeur of the heritage fort.

Guest Room Tiracol Fort Heritage Hotel Accommodation at Tiracol Heritage Goa :
Tiracol Fort Heritage Hotel offers 5 Double Rooms and 2 Deluxe Suites, all with a breathtaking view of the Arabian Sea. The rooms are spacious and comfortable. The hotel offers guests peace and solitude amidst an ambience of luxury. All the rooms are equipped with modern facilities and amenities.

Services at Tiracol Heritage Goa :
Money Changer, Laundry Facility, Doctor on Demand, Car Parking, Massage Parlor, Convention Centre, Multi-cuisine Restaurant, Refrigerator in all rooms, Bar Service, Credit Cards Accepted, Hot/Cold running water, Newspaper in Room, Safe Box in Room, EPABX enabled telephone facility, T. V., Front Desk, Room Service, Travel Desk
Read more "Keri Beach, North Goa..."

Wednesday, December 10, 2008

Goa, India

Known as the “Pearl of the Orient,” Goa may be less well-known than many tourist attractions, however, it can be a very enjoyable and relaxing vacation. Goa is located on the western coast of India in the coastal belt of Konkan. Goa has a tropical climate which is characterized by its balmy weather. Humidity is relatively low between September and March, the month in which Goa receives the most rainfall. Goa Airport is located in Dabolim. The airport is approximately twenty miles from the capital city of Panaji.

Panaji is the heart of Goa. It offers plenty of accommodations, including inexpensive, mid-range and five star hotels, along with homes and rooms available for long-term rental. Once you are settled into your hotel, Panaji and Goa offer a variety of activities, including bird and crocodile watching, casinos and river cruises. Panaji also has a very active nightlife. Discos are the center of nightlife in the city. Discos provide dancing, alcoholic beverages and a great atmosphere for individuals and couples alike. Shopping is a very popular tourist activity during the day. Panaji offers both traditional open air markets and modern shopping malls.

Goa offers a delicious variety of cuisine. Fish, curry and rice are the three staples of Goan food. Seafood is another popular option throughout the state. Whether it is clams, lobsters or crabs, Goan chefs prepare many delicious and unique dishes. So the next time you are planning a vacation, whether for yourself or your whole family, consider the giving unique and laid back atmosphere of Goa, India a try.
What exactly makes Goa so popular?
# Pleasant weather
# Stunning Beaches
# Nightlife Parties
# Historical Forts
# Beautiful Churches
# Colorful Temples
# Wildlife and Spice Plantations
# Rivers and Waterfalls
# History and Culture
# Festivals & shopping
# Ayurveda Experience
# and Fun-loving People
Many beatiful places at Goa you can visit, so prepare for your camera to take a picture at Goa. Covering 131km of the coastline, Goa has more than two dozen beaches to choose from. In fact, you can have the pick of the best. Each Goa beach is unique in itself.

You will find beaches in both North and South Goa.

Fringed by coastal trees and lapped by waters of the Arabian Sea, Goan beaches make for that perfect picture-postcard setting that enchants you.

Options are plenty - you can soak up the sun for that perfect tan, leisurely sip the famous feni drink, go for a brisk swim or take part in adventure sports.
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Monday, December 8, 2008

Young Couple and Career.

Just Married, Young couple and nice career. As a young couple do not need to afraid kemesraan rumah tangga will reduce because of chasing the career. One of fearness that faced by young working couple is if to encourage to chasing career, they will forget about their new family. So the solutions of this problems is to get some balancing by doing these tips and trics.
1. Don’t bring job at home
If you are a good professional employee, you will be able to manage time well. It means that you will receive daily target at the office, and you will never bring your job and do it at your home. But these condition will never happen everyday, maybe there are many reasons that you have to do your work at home such as your boss give you new job, or maybe your friend get sick so that you have to do his job, so you need to do it at home. You must tell your couple first, so that he or she won’t upset.

2. Do your work as quick as possible.
Don’t ever to delay to do your work as small as that your work. Routinity delaying your job must be omitted. You should list the high priority of your job, so that you can done it based on its priority. What will you get if you do your work on time? Your boss will happy so that promotion chance will be more high hehhehehehe…you can go home more early. So be a smart worker.

3. Bed Time Story
Just meet with your couple when its already bed time? Use your leasure bed time at room as a miss medicine. After have a dinner together, take a bath and pray Isya together, you and your couple can share about your experience while you were at the office. With sharing each other, you can fell your couple work and its risk. If that day is not to good for your couple at the office, sure you have to encourage him/her and pray so that tomorrow it will better than that day.

4. Weeked together
If Monday to Friday, you always spend it with your work partner, try to spend weeked with your lovely couple. Although just only have a lunch, buy some novel at book store, accompany him to go to workshop, stay at villa out town,Far or near, long or not too long. Your weekend will be more happier.
Read more "Young Couple and Career...."

Osteoporosis, Beware of red meat.

Osteoporosis is kind of illness that attack bone metabolism which is signed by bone density’s decrease. Bad lifestyle is the reason of osteoporosis.
Consuming to many red meat can increase osteoporosis risk. This is because red meat can produce certain acid in body. So the acid will remain in bone and affecting calcium separate from the bone. Calcium loosing from bone caused to time bone reducing and then will cause osteoporosis.

To avoid from osteoporosis, it will better if you consume food that contain many calcium. Good Calcium can be found at milk, yogurt, cheese, margarine etc. You shouldn’t be afraid get fatter if you consume milk or yogurt a glass per day and better you choose non fat milk.
You should provide Vitamin D needed with take a walk below sunrise between 07.00 to 08.30 and 15.00 to 16.30. Ultraviolet can reactivate unstable Vitamin D which located in your skin.
Except that, lazzy to movin will reduce muscle strength. And it will reduce time bone solid. Do exercise which its good to increase bone strength, such as walking, Tai Chi, dancing, and etc.
Read more "Osteoporosis, Beware of red meat...."

Beware, Heart Attack happen at early morning

Many cases, death because of heart attack. For about 30-50 percent heart attack and stroke happen at early morning. Experts from foreign country trying to find out why those illness often happen at early morning.

The answer is from endotel blood line (pembuluh), whih is layer inside of blood line, place where blood flowing. Body have blood pressure and blood flowing balance due to flexibility of blood line, especially from layer inside called endotel. Early morning, the flexibility is decrease almost until 40 percent from flexibility when its noon. But the experts don’t know yet, is this flexibility changes caused heart attack.
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Friday, December 5, 2008


Hiking is an outdoor activity which consist in walking in natural environments, often on hiking trails.
Hiking is one of the fundamental outdoor activities on which many others are based. Many beautiful places can only be reached overland by hiking, and enthusiasts regard hiking as the best way to see nature. It is seen as better than a tour in a vehicle of any kind (or on an animal; see horseback riding) because the hiker's senses are not intruded upon by distractions such as windows, engine noise, airborne dust and fellow passengers. Hiking over long distances or over difficult terrain does require some degree of physical ability and knowledge.

The word hiking is understood in all English-speaking countries, but there are differences in usage. In some places, off-trail hiking is called 'cross-country hiking', 'bushwhacking', or 'bushbashing'.
Hikers (person who love hiking) often seek beautiful natural environments in which to hike. Ironically, these environments are often fragile: hikers may accidentally destroy the environment that they enjoy. The action of an individual may not strongly affect the environment. However, the mass effect of a large number of hikers can degrade the environment. For example, gathering wood in an alpine area to start a fire may be harmless once (except for wildfire risk). Years of gathering wood, however, can strip an alpine area of valuable nutrients

Hiking equipment is gear or equipment that one takes along on an outdoors hiking trip. While hiking is considered different than backpacking (overnight camping), the equipment is of necessity of a shorter term more practical nature for such a walk.
Hiking equipment may be considered in several categories

1 tems Worn - Things that a hiker wears on the hiking trip. This may include footwear, clothing, head gear, pocket knife, flashlight.
2.Carrying Items - Backpacks, waist packs, walking sticks or staffs, etc.
3.Essential gear - Items that are essential for the hike safety or necessary in potential emergency situations.
4.Food and drink - Food items to consume as snacks, lunch, or in emergencies.
5.Optional Items - Any other items that the hiker desires to bring along including seating pads, chairs, notebooks, hammocks, and sometimes even computers.

One of nice place to hike and trek in Indonesia called Mount Rinjani, Lombok Island Indonesia.
Fact Box

Other names/spellings

Mt. Rinjani

Elevation (feet) =12224

Elevation (meters)= 3726

Location = Lombok, Indonesia, Asia

Latitude= 8ƒ 26' South

Longitude= 116ƒ 28' East

Best Climbing Months= April, May, June, July, August, September, October

Convenient Center's= Senaru, Sembalun Lawang

Nearest Major Airport= mataram, lombok

Volcanic Status= Active

Easiest Summit Route= Walk up


Mount Rinjani in the forest, including forest types heterogeneous and homogeneous in certain areas.
At the height of 1000 - 2000 mdpl can we find the type of vegetation such as Beringin (Ficus superb), harrows (Dysoxylum sp), Bayur, and residents of the estate planted vegetables such as cabbage, chili, onion, potato also. vegetation is the dominant Mountain pine (Casuarina junghuniana). At the height of up to 3,000 mdpl there are only a type of grass and flowers immortal (edelweiss). One ecosystem Mount Rinjani is the Segara Anak Lake, which formed in volcanic eruption of Mount Rinjani as a result. Lake is located at a height of 2,800 mdpl, rich fish fauna and flora other. Property lake is often exploited by local residents by taking fish. However, one should note here is the wisdom of the local population so that local exploitation is not to cause damage to the environment. Fish in the lake there are a lot of this is a golden fish, Mujaer and Harper fish.
Mount Rinjani or Gunung Rinjani is an active volcano in Indonesia on the island of Lombok. It rises to 3,726 m (12,224 ft), making it the second highest volcano in Indonesia. The first historical eruption occurred in September of 1847. The most recent eruption of Mount Rinjani was on 1 October 2004. The volcano and spectacular Segara Anak crater lake, are protected by a national park established in 1997. The 6 km by 8.5 km oval-shaped caldera is filled partially by a lake known as Segara Anak (approximately 2000m above sea level and estimated at being between 200m and 300m deep); the caldera also contains hot springs. The eruptions of 1994, 1995, and 1996 have formed a small cone, Gunung Baru (or Mountain New - approximately 2300m above sea level) in the center of the caldera and lava flows from these eruptions have entered the lake.

The highlands are forest clad and mostly underdeveloped. The lowlands are highly cultivated. Rice, soybeans, coffee, tobacco, cotton, cinnamon, and vanilla are the major crops grown in the fertile soils of the island.

Tourism is also increasingly popular with trekkers able to visit the rim, make their way into the caldera or even to make the more arduous climb to the highest point; fatalities, however, are not uncommon.
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Wednesday, December 3, 2008


Lasagna in Italian is both a form of pasta in sheets (sometimes rippled, though seldom so in Northern Italy) and also a dish, sometimes named lasagne al forno (meaning "oven-cooked lasagne") made with alternate layers of pasta, cheese, and often ragù (a meat sauce) or tomato sauce. In Italy the dish is called "Lasagne" and not "Lasagna".

The word lasagna, which originally applied to a cooking pot, now simply describes the food itself.[1] Most English-speaking people follow the Italian usage and use the plural "lasagne" to refer to both the dish and the pasta, but Americans commonly use the singular "lasagna".
Many recipes call for several kinds of cheese, most often ricotta and mozzarella. Mozzarella is made in the south of Italy, so the use of these two cheeses is typical of lasagne made in Naples or further south.

Wanna try to make lovely and good taste lasagna, try this recipe.

Italian Lasagna
"Homemade Italian Lasagna, made with homemade sauce, and filled with ricotta cheese, Italian sausage, and lots of cheese. Serve with crusty Italian bread."

9 thick slices bacon, diced
1 onion, chopped
1 teaspoon fennel seed
1 teaspoon dried oregano
1 1/2 teaspoons Italian seasoning
2 (28 ounce) cans tomato sauce
2 pounds Italian sausage
1 (16 ounce) package lasagna noodles
2 pints part-skim ricotta cheese
2 eggs
2 teaspoons chopped fresh parsley
1 teaspoon dried oregano
1/3 cup milk
8 slices provolone cheese
6 cups shredded mozzarella cheese

1. Brown bacon and onion in a large pan over medium heat. Stir in fennel seed, 1 teaspoon oregano, Italian seasoning, and tomato sauce. Cover, and simmer on low for 4to 6 hours, or until thick.

2. Brown sausage links in a large skillet. Drain on paper towels. Cut into 1 inch pieces.

3. Mix together ricotta cheese, egg, milk, parsley, and 1 teaspoon oregano in a medium bowl.

4. Layer 1 cup of sauce on the bottom of a 9 x 13 inch pan. Layer with 1/3 uncooked lasagna noodles, 1/2 ricotta cheese mixture, 1/2 sausage pieces, 1/3 mozzarella, and 1/2 provolone cheese. Top with 1/3 sauce. Repeat layers. Top with remaining 1/3 noodles. Spread remaining sauce over the top, and sprinkle with remaining 1/3 mozzarella cheese.

5. Bake at 350 degrees F (175 degrees C) for 1 1/2 hours.

Wanna try now at home? wow.....
Garfield also love lasagna...nyam...nyam...
I love lasagna too, when i went to Pizza hut, i just want to buy lasagna. Why I am starting love lasagna? Because i watched "Garfield" movie...kikikikikik...Garfield loves lasagna very much so i wonder, what lasagna's taste, and then i went to pizza hut and order for lasagna, nyummy....
Read more "Lasagna..."

Understanding Asthma

What is asthma?
Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the lungs and its airways. It affects adults and children alike, but asthma in children is different, explains Dr. Agnes Sebastian-Sanchez, pediatric pulmonologist at the Victor R. Potenciano Medical Center and the Healthway Medical Clinics (both in the Philippines). "Children have smaller airways so the symptoms are exaggerated, particularly in younger kids."

Asthma is a chronic condition characterized by acute attacks. These attacks are caused by hyperreactive airways, which produce increased mucus, then subsequently tighten and narrow, causing airway obstruction. All these bring about the common asthma symptoms of coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.

Dr. Rommel Tipones, adult pulmonologist at the National Kidney and Transplant Institute in the Philippines and the Healthway Medical Clinics, shares these handy tools for controlling asthma triggers.

Quit smoking. Ban smoking inside your home.
Keep furry pets out of your home.
Keep doors and windows closed to control the entry of outdoor allergens. Air-conditioning, although expensive, will help.
Remove stuffed animals, carpeting, curtains, or anything that collects dust, from the bedroom. Cover your mattresses and pillows with airtight covers.
Get a flu shot each year. These are safe for adults and children over 3.
Drugs defined

Drugs defined
Asthma medications can either be inhaled or swallowed (systemic medication). Tipones says inhaled medications are preferred because they deliver the drug direct to the airways, decreasing any side effects that affect the whole body (systemic effects). Medications are classified into relievers, which help stop attacks once they start, and controllers, which help prevent attacks from starting.

Relievers consist of bronchodilators, which keep the airways open, allowing you to breathe during an attack. Inhaled bronchodilators in the proper dose and frequency are very effective. It is the one medication that every asthmatic should have handy wherever he goes. Inhaled bronchodilators are the medication of choice for exercise-induced asthma and are the only medication that those with mild asthma will ever need.
Controllers are anti-inflammatory medications that reduce the swelling of airways and their mucus production. There are different types, including the ever-popular corticosteroids. These are recommended for daily use and are safe and highly effective for long-term therapy. But remember that they have to be used regularly and consistently for maximum effect.

Inhaled corticosteroids are the most frequently used controller medication, but they require spacer devices to avoid side effects such as throat infections. Systemic steroids are only given for severe, uncontrolled asthma. They are extremely effective but can cause serious side effects with prolonged use. Among the many side effects are weight gain, nausea and vomiting, face puffiness and foot swelling, hyperacidity, growth retardation in kids, early cataracts, delayed wound healing and infections.
Finally, successful asthma management relies heavily on you as the patient. Everyone with asthma has a responsibility to learn everything about the condition.
Take your med exactly as prescribed, even when you feel well. With controller medicine, the effects are not evident immediately. It takes a few weeks for them to work. For this reason, some people discontinue medication because they deem it unnecessary or see no attack forthcoming.

To control your asthma continuously and permanently, you must adhere to the treatment exactly as the doctor recommends. "Asthma management requires a partnership between the patient, his family and their doctor," Sebastian-Sanchez stresses. Asthma can last a lifetime and can even be life threatening, but if you manage it properly, it is almost always controllable

Source : www.healthtoday.net
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Pizza , in Italian is a popular dish made with an oven-baked, flat, generally round bread that is covered with tomatoes or a tomato-based sauce and mozzarella cheese. Other toppings are added according to region, culture or personal preference.

Originating as a part of Italian cuisine, the dish has become popular in many different parts of the world. A shop or restaurant where pizzas are made and sold is called a “pizzeria”. The phrase “pizza parlor” is also used in the United States. The term pizza pie is dialectal, and pie is used for simplicity in some contexts, such as among pizzeria staff.

Various toppings may be added, most typically:

Tomato sauce usually replaces the tomato mixture used on Italian-style pizzas, and is usually a fairly heavily seasoned, smooth sauce with a low water content. On some variants without tomatoes, pesto, alfredo and barbecue sauce are also used.
Cheese, usually mozzarella but also provolone, cheddar, parmesan or a blend of other cheeses.
Fruits and vegetables such as garlic, artichoke hearts, eggplant, olives, capers, onions, spinach, tomatoes, bell peppers, jalepenos, banana peppers and pineapple.
Meat, such as sausage (pepperoni, salami or Italian sausage), ham, bacon, ground beef, and chicken.
Seafood such as anchovies, tuna, salmon and shrimp.
Herbs and spices such as basil, oregano and black pepper.
Nuts such as cashews, pistachios and pine nuts.
Oils such as olive oil, walnut oil and truffle oil.
In some pizza recipes the tomato sauce is omitted (termed “white pizza”), or replaced with another sauce (usually garlic butter, but sauces can also be made with spinach or onions). In the Philadelphia area there are also tomato pies—sauce only, or sauce with ripe Roma tomatoes and spices but no cheese—and upside-down pizzas, i.e., the cheese on the bottom and topped with sauce. Pizza is normally eaten hot (typically at lunch or dinner), but is sometimes eaten as cold leftovers for breakfast.

Here is one of example shop that sell many kind of pizza.Nyummy....lets try this one, you will never regret it .
Pizza Hut is a restaurant chain and international franchise based in Addison, Texas,[1] USA (a northern suburb of Dallas) offering different styles of pizza along with side dishes including pasta, buffalo wings, breadsticks, and garlic bread. Pizza Hut is the world's largest pizza restaurant chain and is a subsidiary of Yum! Brands, Inc., who has approximately 34,000 restaurants, delivery-carry out units, and kiosks in 100 countries.

It is one of three major pizza chains headquartered in suburbs of Dallas, TX. Mr. Jim's Pizza and Pizza Inn are the others.

Pizza Hut is a restaurant chain and international franchise based in Addison, Texas,[1] USA (a northern suburb of Dallas) offering different styles of pizza along with side dishes including pasta, buffalo wings, breadsticks, and garlic bread. Pizza Hut is the world's largest pizza restaurant chain and is a subsidiary of Yum! Brands, Inc., who has approximately 34,000 restaurants, delivery-carry out units, and kiosks in 100 countries.

It is one of three major pizza chains headquartered in suburbs of Dallas, TX. Mr. Jim's Pizza and Pizza Inn are the others.
Read more "Pizza..."

Long-term aspirin and death risk for women: new study

Women who took low to moderate daily doses of aspirin had a reduced death rate, especially from heart disease, according to decades-long research. The research, based on data from a major trial that has tracked almost 80,000 women since 1976, found women who reported using aspirin on a regular basis had a 25% lower risk of death from any cause than women who didn't take the drug.

The risk of death from cardiovascular disease was 38% lower for aspirin users, and there was also a 12% reduction in cancer deaths that took effect after a decade of aspirin use, the researchers found in their report based on the Nurses' Health Study.

The results were published in the March 26 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

However, an accompanying editorial in the journal cautioned that the results were open to debate and far from definitive.

The dissenting editorial, by Dr John A. Baron of Dartmouth Medical School, was based in large part on results of a different trial, the Women's Health Study, which followed almost 40,000 women for 11 years and found no reduction in overall deaths or cardiovascular mortality associated with aspirin therapy.

Therefore, Baron said, the new findings "cannot overcome the accumulated evidence that aspirin is not particularly effective for the primary prevention of death from cardiovascular disease in women."

"This is a complicated issue," said Dr Andrew T. Chan, an assistant professor of medicine at the Harvard Medical School, and lead author of the new report. "We understand that aspirin has potential health benefits, but who would aspirin therapy be appropriate for?" There are "areas of disagreement that need further study" before that question can be answered, Chan said. But there is information from the two large studies and other trials that can help guide women and their physicians, he said.

For starters, some studies suggest aspirin has benefits for older women and those who have cardiovascular risk factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol and obesity, Chan said. "Our study and the Women's Heath Study do suggest that there is a potential role of aspirin for women who have subclinical cardiovascular disease," he added.

That statement meshes with prevention guidelines issued in 2004 by the American Heart Association. The guidelines recommend aspirin for women at high risk of heart disease or who already have cardiovascular disease, but they don't apply to women at low risk for the disease. For intermediate-risk women, aspirin can be considered if blood pressure is under control and the benefits are believed to outweigh risks, such as gastrointestinal bleeding.

But the decision to take aspirin, or any other medication, should not be made by an individual alone, Chan said. "I tell women that, at this point, the decision calls for consultation with a doctor," he said. "Aspirin does have side effects, so it is something that has to be individualized. It would be very naive to recommend that treatment for all women across the board."

The new study included information on 29,000 participants in the Nurses' Health study who took between one and 14 standard 325mg aspirin tablets a week and 5002 women who took more than 14 tablets weekly.

The reduction in cancer risk that became evident after 10 years was an intriguing finding, Chan said. The Women's Health Study found no such reduction over a decade, he said. "One important message is that the study suggests the mechanisms at play for cardiovascular disease and cancer are potentially common," Chan said. "This provides further grounds for research into these mechanisms."

Dr Jeffrey Berger, a cardiology fellow at Duke University who has done related research, said the new report describes "another very large study that tells us individuals who take aspirin live longer. You can't argue with that. We can't prove cause-and-effect, but we can say that when you take aspirin, there is a reduction in overall deaths."

It's important to remember that aspirin has benefits for both men and women, Berger added. "How it benefits men, how it benefits women, that is an important issue at this time," he said.

And anyone who is thinking about daily aspirin "should really talk with doctors about the benefits and risks," Berger said.

Source : www.heathtoday.net
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PopCorn caused Lungs Cancer

Chemical material that used to give margarin taste at popcorn can destroy lungs and respiration when it experimanted to rats. THe experimentation show that diacetyl ( name of component in synthetic Margarin's flavour ) can affect Lymphocytic bronchiolitis.

Experimented rats that heal diacetyl in 3 months, proved suffer Lymphocytic bronchiolitis.

This condition affect obliterative bronchilolitis. It is a rare disease and many found at peple who work at popcorn microwave packing. This hard cured condition affect cough, and hard to breath. These indication can be bad more over time.

Sumber: Healthtoday
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Healthy food, Medicine food

Our daily food basically can be medicine to reduce or prevent illness. Below are the example of illness and kind of food that can be used as medicine :

1. Headache
I am sure that everyone have had headache before, because of loading of job, the exam, life and etc. To prevent headache so you shoud eat fish. oil of fish can prevent headache. either do with ginger that can reduce sickness.

2. Insomnia
Can sleep lately? take honey as reducer.

3. Asthma
Take bombay onion. the onion will fresh disturbance at red lane line

4. Rheumatic
Eat fish. Such as Salmon, Tuna, Mackarel and Sardine can prevent hinge inflamed.

5. Stomachache
Consume ginger and banana. Banana can refresh your stomach. Ginger will prevent morning sick.

6. Uterus urine infection.
Consume cranberry juice. High acid concentration at cranberry juice can control destrutor bacteri.

7. Memories discruption
Try to consume oyster. Oyster can help to fix mentality function by supply many zinc element as needed by memory.

8. Fever
Consume white onion. It can reduce headache because of fever.

9. Cough
Consume red pepper. Red pepper contain of nutrition that always found at cough medicine. Use red pepper carefully, because it can make stomachache.

and many more of our daily food can prevent illness also reduce it.
Read more "Healthy food, Medicine food..."

Tuesday, December 2, 2008


Rafting or whitewater rafting is a challenging recreational activity utilizing a raft to navigate a river or other bodies of water. This is usually done on whitewater or different degrees of rough water, in order to thrill and excite the raft passengers. The development of this activity as a leisure sport has become popular since the mid 1970s

Whitewater rafting can be a dangerous sport, especially if basic safety precautions are not observed. Both commercial and private trips have seen their share of injuries and fatalities, though private travel has typically been associated with greater risk. Depending on the area, legislated safety measures may exist for rafting operators. These range from certification of outfitters, rafts, and raft leaders, to more stringent regulations about equipment and procedures. It is generally advisable to discuss safety measures with a rafting operator before signing on for a trip. The equipment used and the qualifications of the company and raft guides are essential information to be considered.
In Indonesia you can find many river that you can raft with your friend. Especially in East Java, you can find all about rafting information from Songa. The name of the river is Pekalen.
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Tai Chi

Tai chi chuan (traditional Chinese: 太極拳; simplified Chinese: 太极拳; pinyin: tàijíquán; Wade-Giles: t'ai4 chi2 ch'üan2) is an internal Chinese martial art often practiced for health reasons. Tai chi is typically practiced for a variety of reasons: its soft martial techniques, demonstration competitions, health and longevity.

Today, tai chi has spread worldwide. Most modern styles of tai chi trace their development to at least one of the five traditional schools: Chen, Yang, Wu/Hao, Wu and Sun. The origins and creation of tai chi are a subject of much argument and speculation.
The study of tai chi chuan primarily involves three aspects[citation needed]:

* Health: An unhealthy or otherwise uncomfortable person may find it difficult to meditate to a state of calmness or to use tai chi as a martial art. Tai chi's health training therefore concentrates on relieving the physical effects of stress on the body and mind. For those focused on tai chi's martial application, good physical fitness is an important step towards effective self-defense.
* Meditation: The focus and calmness cultivated by the meditative aspect of tai chi is seen as necessary in maintaining optimum health (in the sense of relieving stress and maintaining homeostasis) and in application of the form as a soft style martial art.
* Martial art: The ability to use tai chi as a form of self-defense in combat is the test of a student's understanding of the art. Tai chi chuan martially is the study of appropriate change in response to outside forces; the study of yielding and "sticking" to an incoming attack rather than attempting to meet it with opposing force.
There are five major styles of tai chi chuan, each named after the Chinese family from which it originated:

* Chen style (陳氏)
The Chen family style (陳家、陳氏 or 陳式 太極拳) is the oldest and parent form of the five main tai chi chuan styles. It is third in terms of world-wide popularity compared to the other main taijiquan styles. Chen style is characterized by its lower stances, more explicit Silk reeling (chan si jin) and bursts of power (fa jin).

* Yang style (楊氏)
Yang family style (simplified Chinese: 楊氏; pinyin: yángshì) tai chi chuan in its many variations is the most popular and widely practised style in the world today and the second in terms of seniority among the primary five family styles of tai chi chuan

* Wu or Wu/Hao style of Wu Yu-hsiang (Wu Yuxiang) (武氏)
Wu Yu-hsiang's t'ai chi ch'uan is a distinctive style with small, subtle movements; highly focused on balance, sensitivity and internal ch'i development. It is a rare style today, especially compared with the other major styles

* Wu style of Wu Ch'uan-yü (Wu Quanyuo) and Wu Chien-ch'uan (Wu Jianquan) (吳氏)
The Wu family style (simplified Chinese: 吳氏 or 吳家; pinyin: wúshì or wújiā) t'ai chi ch'uan (taijiquan) of Wu Ch'uan-yü (Wu Quanyuo) and Wu Chien-ch'üan (Wu Jianquan) is the second most popular form of t'ai chi ch'uan in the world today, after the Yang style,[1] and fourth in terms of family seniority.[2] This style is different from the Wu style of t'ai chi ch'uan (武氏) founded by Wu Yu-hsiang. While the names are distinct in pronunciation and the Chinese characters used to write them are different, they are often romanized the same way.

* Sun style (孫氏)
Sun style tai chi chuan is well known for its smooth, flowing movements which omit the more physically vigorous crouching, leaping and fa jin of some other styles. The footwork of Sun style is unique, when one foot advances or retreats the other follows. It also uses an open palm throughout the entirety of its main form, and exhibits small circular movements with the hand. Its gentle postures and high stances make it very suitable for geriatric exercise and martial arts therapy.

It's been said that t'ai chi is a combination of moving yoga and meditation. A person performs t'ai chi by practicing breathing exercises and a series of slow, graceful, flowing postures (also called poses) simultaneously. The postures consist of movements that are said to improve body awareness and enhance strength and coordination. Many people who practice t'ai chi say that they feel more peaceful and relaxed after a workout.

T'ai chi was developed in ancient China as early as 225 AD. The ancient Chinese believed that the body was filled with energy, or chi, but chi could become blocked, causing illness and disease. They believed that a person could help improve the flow of chi throughout the body and improve health by practicing t'ai chi exercises.
Before you start your first t'ai chi workout, you should dress comfortably so you can move and stretch easily. Shorts or tights and a T-shirt or tank top are great choices. Because t'ai chi is a martial art, some people who practice it wear a martial arts training uniform. T'ai chi is usually practiced barefoot or in comfortable socks and sneakers.
Is your schedule jam-packed with school, work, and social activities? Here are a few tips for fitting in fitness and staying motivated:

* Try a little at a time. If you don't have time to go through an entire form in your regular t'ai chi routine, try breaking up your workout into 10- or 15-minute chunks. During a long study session, reward yourself every hour with a few minutes of t'ai chi.
* Go slow. Keep your expectations reasonable. Don't expect to be able to do all the moves perfectly right away. Masters of t'ai chi work on the forms continuously for years to perfect them. As you become more proficient, remember: The postures of t'ai chi are meant to be done slowly for best results.
* Do what works for you. Some people have more success working out in the morning before the day's activities sidetrack them; others find that a nighttime workout helps them unwind before hitting the sack. Experiment with working out at different times of the day and find the time that fits your schedule and energy level best.
* Get in a group. If you find that you aren't motivated to work out by yourself, attend a few t'ai chi classes and get social. An added benefit of taking the class: The teacher can help you with your form and give you tips to make your workout more effective and enjoyable.
* Keep boredom at bay. Many people who work out regularly say that preventing boredom is the key to consistent workouts. If you've been doing t'ai chi every day and are feeling a little blah, mix it up with walking or a yoga video.

There's one caution about starting a t'ai chi routine, though: Once you start, you might not be able to stop.

So be aware...hihihihi:)
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The term wushu consists of two Chinese characters. 武 (wǔ), meaning, martial or military, and 術 (shù), which translates into discipline, skill or method. Together these form "wǔshù" meaning 'Art of fighting' but translated as "martial art".
Wushu has over time become a formal branch of study in the performancing arts by the Chinese. It is the most popular national sport in the country of China, and is practised by people of all ages. Modern wushu has shifted it's emphasis from combat to performance, and it is practiced for its method of achieving heath, self-defense skills, mental discipline, recreational pursuit and competition.

Wushu is characterized by it dynamic and fluid motions along with its arial kicks, rolling techniques and weapons.

Wushu is the Chinese word for all the styles of Chinese Martial Arts. These arts can be Tai Chi, Shaolin Boxing, Wing Chun, and many other martial styles.

The main styles of Wushu are:

Barehands: Changquan (Long fist), Nanquan (Southern Fist), Taijiquan (Taiji Quan)
Short Weapons:

Dao (single-edged sword)
Jian (double-edged sword)
Taijijian (Taiji double-edged sword)
Nandao (Southern single-edged sword)

Long Weapons:

Gun (Staff)
Qiang (Spear)
Nangun (Southern Staff)

When you look at the Chinese characters for wushu, it is actually two characters or words, Wu meaning 'martial' and Shu meaning 'art'. Upon further examination of the Chinese character for Wu, it too is two characters, Zhi meaning ' do not do' and Ge meaning 'Fight'. Thus the characters translate to 'Do not Fight'.Therefore, the word Wushu really means the 'Art of not fighting'.

Five (5) Element of Wushu

1. Water, means live and soft. Because water feeding plants and its own shape that always fit with its place.

2. Wood, means bones and muscles as energy of live which will affect heat forming as a power when its mixed with fire.

3. Fire, means strength and skill. Giving nutrition from result of burning that will make inovation in development.

4. Earth, measn defense. Giving place to several elements to grow up.

5. Metal, means weapon uses. Combined several element to control many important weapon in wushu.

Several elements connection in wushu are;
water cold the fire, water will metal handiwork, metal cut the wood, wood grow from earth, earth control the water. So, all of these elements connected each others.
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Siamese Cat

The Siamese is one of the first distinctly recognised breeds of Oriental cat. The exact origins of the breed are unknown, but it is believed to be from Southeast Asia, and is said to be descended from the sacred temple cats of Siam (now Thailand). In Thailand, where they are one of several native breeds, they are called Wichien-maat (วิเชียรมาศ, a name meaning "Moon diamond"). In the twentieth century the Siamese cats became one of the most popular breeds in Europe and North America.

They are typically long-lived, 15 to 20 years is average, and over 20 is not uncommon. Originally the vast majority of Siamese had seal (extremely dark brown, almost black) points, but occasionally Siamese were born with blue (a cool grey) points, genetically a dilution of seal point; chocolate (lighter brown) points, a genetic variation of seal point; or lilac (pale warm gray) points, genetically a diluted chocolate. These colours were at first considered "inferior" seal points, and were not qualified for showing or breeding.
Siamese have almond-shaped, bright blue eyes and short, flat-lying coats. Many Siamese cats from Thailand had a kink in their tails but over the years this trait has been considered to be a flaw and breeders have largely eradicated it, although it persists among street cats in Thailand. Many early Siamese were cross-eyed to compensate for the abnormal uncrossed wiring of the optic chiasm, which is produced by the same albino allele that produces coloured points. Like the kinked tails, the crossed eyes have been seen as a fault and through selective breeding, the trait is far less common today.
The Siamese cat is probably one of the most well known and best loved of the feline species throughout the world. Siamese are extremely vocal cats and can be mischievous at times. They love nothing more than being with their human family and will constantly crave attention whilst being extremely vocal cats. Anyone looking for a peaceful, quiet home, should not really consider being owned by a Siamese. They are very intelligent cats and their antics will amuse all who share a home with them. Their elegant, lithe body can grace any show bench and attract admirers from all around. However, despite their appearance, they are very athletic cats with strong muscles. Their hind legs should be higher than their front legs and the paws are oval shaped. The Siamese head should be long and well proportioned with width between the ears. The eyes are slanting and are a deep, vivid blue. The overall look of the Siamese should be a well balanced appearance.
As you know Siameses have short hair and i thinks a comb is best for us as opposed to a brush. use also a grooming mitt as well. We don't really need a lot of grooming, just a few minutes each day. For some strange reason though, we also strokes its fur with a silk scarf. Stroke it to make its coat shiny and soft. It's a good idea for you too groom siamese every day though, because it can make sure siamese have no lumps or fleas.
When you are grooming siamese this should also include making sure siamese ears and eyes are clean. Sometimes siamese ears get waxy, and they need to have wiped out. You can uses some Eye and Ear wipes and they are really good, but you can also use a damp cotton wool ball as well. You really should do their eyes and ears once a week. . You need to make sure that you get them used to grooming from the time we are kittens, it's much easier for you and then they stay still. You shuld tends to wait until they are settling on her lap each day because and you have to know then that they are not in an active mood and will sit still and enjoy the grooming session.
You should also check their claws to make sure they aren't too long. their claws get cut by you once a week because they are indoors all the time so their claws don't wear down like they do on you outdoor cats. It's really easy to cut their claws, but please don't cut them unless you know what you are doing because if you cut them too short (to the quick) it will bleed and hurt them a lot.
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Persian Cat

The Persian (Persia: گربه ایرانی ) is one of the oldest breeds of cat. In Britain, it is called the Longhair or Persian Longhair. A Persian without an established and registered pedigree is classed as a domestic longhair cat.

Characteristics of Persian Cat

Persian has an extremely long thick coat, short legs, a wide head with the ears set far apart, large eyes, and an extremely foreshortened muzzle. Their eyes are often gooey, and the owner should clean their eyes at least once every day. Persians with the more extreme brachycephalic head type are susceptible to a number of health problems (specifically affecting their sinuses and breathing) caused by it. Their short muzzle also causes them to have dust and debris cover the inside of their nostrils more often, which makes it very difficult for them to breathe.

Persian cats can have any color or markings including pointed, golden, tortoiseshell, blue, and tabby. Tipped varieties are known as Chinchilla. Point varieties are called Himalayan in the United States and Colorpoint Persian in Europe.

Because their fur is too long and dense for them to maintain themselves, Persian cats need regular grooming. To keep their fur in its best condition, they must be bathed regularly, dried carefully afterwards, and brushed thoroughly every day. Their eyes need to be checked for problems on a regular basis because some animals have trouble keeping them clean. As they grow older, Persians tend to develop a crusty-like object under the eyes. Likewise, Persians are particularly susceptible to a genetic disease which causes kidney failure, PKD, Polycystic kidney disease, among other diseases. However, cats can now be DNA screened for the gene that causes PKD, so these affected cats are gradually being removed from the Persian gene pool by responsible breeders.

Longevity is usually between 10 and 19 years on average. The White Persians eye-color can be orange-eyed, blue-eyed, or odd-eyed. The blue-eyed type is prone to deafness.
How often you should bath your lovely persian?to clean it so that no disease around him. There is so much information that should be consider when grooming your Persian than just how often to brush or comb and how often to bath. Persian cats need to be groomed on a regular basis. Persian cat grooming works best when it becomes routine for both the Persian cat or kitten and their human caregiver. Grooming your Persian cat or kitten becomes easier for the cat or kitten when it is a regular part of their daily routine. For example, you might try giving a snack or reward after you groom your Persian. A Persian cat or kitten will tolerate grooming if they feel they are rewarded afterwards.

Given all the information there are many factors that play a role in how often your Persian should be bathed, such as your brushing and/or combing habits, your Persians eating habits, their personal hygiene, type of hair/coat they are genetically predisposed to, overall health and environmental and geographical factors.

Persian Cat Bath Preparation

There are several things to consider when you are preparing for bathing your Persian cat.
Removing mats and knots in your Persian's coat is VERY important. If we can tell you one of information about grooming, it is to NEVER, NEVER, NEVER EVER put a matted cat into water.
Persian Degreasing

After your Persian cat is brushed out and all the mats have been removed, it is time to degrease the coat prior to bathing. Degreasing a Persian will take some time, practice and patience on both your part and your cat.

Persian Cat Bath
Now that you have degreased your Persians coat, it's time to move onto the Persian cat bath shampoo phase of the grooming your Persian.

Drying Your Persian after the Bath
Once you have your Persian bath completed, now it's time to move onto drying your Persian cat. Have patience, you're almost done.

Persian Facial Stains
When grooming your Persian cat or kitten you may be fighting facial and front ruff stains. Facial staining on a Persian cat shows much more in a lighter colored coat than a dark colored Persian.

So its time for you to groom your persian well and love them.:)
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Race of Cats and its Varieties

Cats have lived many century with human through space time and culture. But just recently, cats is selected and mated purpose to get common race.

What is the meaning with Pedigree ?
Simply, pedigree means genealogy. Pedigreed cat means cat with have known pedigreed until several generation before. This pedigree must be certificate.

Pure Persian cat can be mated with Pure Siamese cat. Athougth the pedigree of both of persian and siamese is clear, kitten can not stated as new race (persian/siamase) until the kitten have clearly and consistent characteristic.

Cat's Races
Based on its hair, divided by three cat's races, which is long hair, short hair and semi long hair. You can see cat's races ivided by its hair below,:

Longhair :
- Persia

Semi-longhair :
- Birman
- Turkish Van
- Turkish Angora
- Somali
- Maine Coon
- Norwegian Forest
- Balinese
- Javanese
- Ragdoll
- Tiffanie
- Tiffany
- Cymric

Shorthair :
- Exotic Shorthair
- British Shorthair
- American Shorthair
- European Shorthair
- Chartreux
- Oriental Shorthair
- Siamese
- Snowshoe
- Seychellois
- Abyssinian
- Rusian Blue
- Korat
- Burmese
- Asian Group
- Burmilla
- Bombay
- Bengal
- Tonkinese
- Egyptian Mau
- Singapura
- Ocicat
- Japanese Bobtail
- Manx
- Cornish Rex
- Devon Rex
- Selkirk Rex
- American Curl
- Scottish Fold
- American Wirehair
- Sphynx

Below cat's races formed by genetic mutation :
- American Bobtail
- American Curl
- American Wirehair
- Cornish Rex
- Cymric
- Devon Rex
- German Rex
- Japanese Bobtail
- Kurilian Bobtail
- LaPerm
- Manx
- Munchkin
- Ojos Azules
- Peterbald
- Pixie-bob
- Selkirk Rex
- Scottish Fold
- Sphynx

Cat's races obtained by mated with wild cat:
- Alpine Lynx
- Bengal
- Chausie
- Desert Lynx
- Highland Lynx
- Jaguarundi Curl
- Savannah
- Serengeti
- Toyger

So which race is your cat?
Read more "Race of Cats and its Varieties..."

Monday, December 1, 2008

Material Construction

There are many kind of material that used at Heat Exchanger fabrication. Such as Carbon Steel,Austenite steel, Duplex Stainless steel ,Super Austenite and Titanium. Let we learn about this material more clearly.
1. Carbon Steel
Carbon steel, also called plain carbon steel, is steel where the main alloying constituent is carbon. The AISI defines carbon steel as: "Steel is considered to be carbon steel when no minimum content is specified or required for chromium, cobalt, columbium [niobium], molybdenum, nickel, titanium, tungsten, vanadium or zirconium, or any other element to be added to obtain a desired alloying effect; when the specified minimum for copper does not exceed 0.40 per cent; or when the maximum content specified for any of the following elements does not exceed the percentages noted: manganese 1.65, silicon 0.60, copper 0.60."[1]

The term "carbon steel" may also be used in reference to steel which is not stainless steel; in this use carbon steel may include alloy steels.
Steel which is Fe plus a small amount of C has crystal structure at room temperature called Ferrite. Ferrite has one atom Fe atom at each corner of a cube and another in the centre of the body and this is called Body Center Cubic.
Types of carbon steel

Typical compositions of carbon are:

* Mild (low carbon) steel: approximately 0.05% to 0.26% carbon content with up to 0.4% manganese content[1] (e.g. AISI 1018 steel). Less strong but cheap and easy to shape; surface hardness can be increased through carburizing.[2]

* Medium carbon steel: approximately 0.29% to 0.54% carbon content with 0.60 to 1.65% manganese content[1](e.g. AISI 1040 steel). Balances ductility and strength and has good wear resistance; used for large parts, forging and automotive components.[3]

* High carbon steel: approximiately 0.55% to 0.95% carbon content with 0.30 to 0.90% manganese content..[1] Very strong, used for springs and high-strength wires.[4]

* Very high carbon steel: approximately 0.96% to 2.1% carbon content, specially processed to produce specific atomic and molecular microstructures.[1]

Steel can be heat-treated which allows parts to be fabricated in an easily-formable soft state. If enough carbon is present, the alloy can be hardened to increase strength, wear, and impact resistance. Steels are often wrought by cold-working methods, which is the shaping of metal through deformation at a low equilibrium or metastable temperature.

2. Stainless steel
when CR is added to steel to make stainless steel, the ferritic crystal structure doesn't change since Cr is a ferrite former. It wishes to form the ferritic crystal structure. These Fe-Cr are called the ferritic stainless steel.
In metallurgy, stainless steel is defined as a steel alloy with a minimum of 10% chromium content by mass.[1] Stainless steel does not stain, corrode, or rust as easily as ordinary steel (it "stains less"), but it is not stain-proof. It is also called corrosion-resistant steel when the alloy type and grade are not detailed, particularly in the aviation industry. There are different grades and surface finishes of stainless steel to suit the environment to which the material will be subjected in its lifetime. Common uses of stainless steel are cutlery and watch straps.

Stainless steel differs from carbon steel by amount of chromium present. Carbon steel rusts when exposed to air and moisture. This iron oxide film is active and accelerates corrosion by forming more iron oxide. Stainless steels have sufficient amount of chromium present so that a passive film of chromium oxide forms which prevents further corrosion.
Types of stainless steel

There are different types of stainless steels: when nickel is added, for instance, the austenite structure of iron is stabilized. This crystal structure makes such steels non-magnetic and less brittle at low temperatures. For greater hardness and strength, carbon is added. When subjected to adequate heat treatment, these steels are used as razor blades, cutlery, tools, etc.

Significant quantities of manganese have been used in many stainless steel compositions. Manganese preserves an austenitic structure in the steel as does nickel, but at a lower cost.

Stainless steels are also classified by their crystalline structure:

* Austenitic, or 300 series, when Ni is added to Stainless steel, major changes occur since Ni is an "austenite former". The stainless steel wishes to form a different crystal structure call austenite. stainless steels comprise over 70% of total stainless steel production. They contain a maximum of 0.15% carbon, a minimum of 16% chromium and sufficient nickel and/or manganese to retain an austenitic structure at all temperatures from the cryogenic region to the melting point of the alloy. A typical composition of 18% chromium and 10% nickel, commonly known as 18/10 stainless, is often used in flatware. Similarly, 18/0 and 18/8 are also available. Superaustenitic stainless steels, such as alloy AL-6XN and 254SMO, exhibit great resistance to chloride pitting and crevice corrosion due to high molybdenum content (>6%) and nitrogen additions, and the higher nickel content ensures better resistance to stress-corrosion cracking versus the 300 series. The higher alloy content of superaustenitic steels makes them more expensive. Other steels can offer similar performance at lower cost and are preferred in certain applications.[citation needed]

The low carbon version of the Austenitic Stainless Steel, for example 316L or 304L, are used to avoid corrosion problem caused by welding.The vast majority of stainless steels used in the world are this type. The "L" means that the carbon content of the Stainless Steel is below 0.03%, this will reduce the sensitization effect, precipitation of Chromium Carbides, due to the high temperature produced by welding operation.
The austenite crystal structure is important because it is formable, welavle and tough.

* Ferritic stainless steels are highly corrosion-resistant, but less durable than austenitic grades. They contain between 10.5% and 27% chromium and very little nickel, if any, but some types can contain lead. Most compositions include molybdenum; some, aluminium or titanium. Common ferritic grades include 18Cr-2Mo, 26Cr-1Mo, 29Cr-4Mo, and 29Cr-4Mo-2Ni.

* Martensitic stainless steels are not as corrosion-resistant as the other two classes but are extremely strong and tough, as well as highly machineable, and can be hardened by heat treatment. Martensitic stainless steel contains chromium (12-14%), molybdenum (0.2-1%), nickel (0-<2%), and carbon (about 0.1-1%) (giving it more hardness but making the material a bit more brittle). It is quenched and magnetic.

* Precipitation-hardening martensitic stainless steels have corrosion resistance comparable to austenitic varieties, but can be precipitation hardened to even higher strengths than the other martensitic grades. The most common, 17-4PH, uses about 17% chromium and 4% nickel. There is a rising trend in defense budgets to opt for an ultra-high-strength stainless steel when possible in new projects, as it is estimated that 2% of the US GDP is spent dealing with corrosion. The Lockheed-Martin Joint Strike Fighter is the first aircraft to use a precipitation-hardenable stainless steel—Carpenter Custom 465—in its airframe.

* Duplex stainless steels have a mixed microstructure of austenite and ferrite, the aim being to produce a 50/50 mix, although in commercial alloys, the mix may be 40/60 respectively. Duplex stainless steel are created by adding only about half the amount of nickel which would normally be added to make a fully austenitic grade. Duplex steels have improved strength over austenitic stainless steels and also improved resistance to localised corrosion, particularly pitting, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. They are characterised by high chromium (19–28%) and molybdenum (up to 5%) and lower nickel contents than austenitic stainless steels. The most used Duplex Stainless Steel are the 2205 (22% Chromium, 5% Nickel) and 2507 (25% Chromium, 7% Nickel) sometimes the 2507 is also called "SuperDuplex" due to the higher Corrosion resistance.
Why Duplex Stainless Steel??
Keep the positives and reduce the negative
1. 300 series
a. General corrosion resistance
b. Ease of forming and welding
2. 400 series
a. Resistance to SCC (Stress Corrosion Cracking)
b. High strength

Material Option
1. Ferritic
a. Not available in all product forms
b. Difficult to fabricate
c. 400 series stainless
2. Higher Nickel Alloys
a. Easier to fabricate
b. Good availability
c. Can be expensive
d. Alloy 20, AL-6XN. 825, 625, C-276
3. Duplex
a. Relatively inexpensive
b. Easier to fabricate thhan 400 series
c. LDX 2101, 2205, 2507

All of above material have maximum temperature that can be handle. Maximum temperature limits by ASME Section VIII, Div 1 are :

316L Limitation :
Highly susceptible to chloride stress and corrosion cracking.
Read more "Material Construction..."


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